All-Cause Mortality and Progression to End-Stage Kidney Disease Following Percutaneous Revascularization or Surgical Coronary Revascularization in Patients with CKD

Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Mar 25;6(6):1580-1591. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.03.882. eCollection 2021 Jun.


Introduction: Relative impacts of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on mortality and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are uncertain.

Methods: Data from Massachusetts residents with CKD undergoing CABG or PCI from 2003 to 2012 were linked to the United States Renal Data System. Associations with death, ESKD, and combined death and ESKD were analyzed in propensity score-matched multivariable survival models.

Results: We identified 6805 CABG and 17,494 PCI patients. Among 3775 matched-pairs, multi-vessel disease was present in 97%, and stage 4 CKD was present in 11.9% of CABG and 12.2% of PCI patients. One-year mortality (CABG 7.7%, PCI 11.0%) was more frequent than ESKD (CABG 1.4%, PCI 1.7%). Overall survival was improved and ESKD risk decreased with CABG compared to PCI, but effects differed in the presence of left main disease and prior myocardial infarction (MI). Survival was worse following PCI than following CABG among patients with left main disease and without MI (hazard ratio = 3.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-10.5). ESKD risk was higher with PCI for individuals with left main disease and prior infarction (hazard ratio = 8.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-39.2).

Conclusion: Risks following CABG and PCI were modified by left main disease and prior MI. In individuals with CKD, survival was greater after CABG than after PCI in patients with left main disease but without MI, whereas ESKD risk was lower with CABG in those with left main and MI. Absolute risks of ESKD were markedly lower than for mortality, suggesting prioritizing mortality over ESKD in clinical decision making.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; coronary artery disease; end-stage renal disease; revascularization.