Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Depression Symptoms in Adults From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Am J Community Psychol. 2021 Dec;68(3-4):427-439. doi: 10.1002/ajcp.12525. Epub 2021 Jun 25.


Socioeconomic factors appear to impact mental health conditions such as depression, but little is known about the relative and combined role of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation among Hispanics/Latinos. This study examined cross-sectional associations of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation with depression symptoms in a US Hispanic/Latino population from the San Diego Field Center of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (n = 3,851). Depression symptoms were assessed with the ten-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was a composite of eleven variables (e.g., neighborhood income, education, employment, household crowding). Greater personal socioeconomic deprivation based on education, income, and employment was generally associated with higher depression symptoms, including after adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. Greater neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with higher depression symptoms in females but not males, but the association in females became non-significant when adjusting for personal socioeconomic deprivation. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not significantly interact with personal socioeconomic deprivation in relation to depression symptoms. The present findings support the association of personal socioeconomic status with mental health (indicated by depression symptoms) among Hispanic/Latino populations, whereas neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not relate to depression beyond the impact of personal indicators.

Keywords: Health disparities; Mental health; Neighborhood; Social determinants; Social epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Crowding
  • Depression* / epidemiology
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Public Health*
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology