Clinical manifestations and novel pathogenic variants in SOX10 in eight Danish probands with Waardenburg syndrome

Eur J Med Genet. 2021 Sep;64(9):104265. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104265. Epub 2021 Jun 22.


The SRY-related HMG box gene 10 (SOX10), located on 22q13.1, encodes a member of the SOX family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate and differentiation. SOX10 is one of the six causal genes for Waardenburg syndrome, which is a dominantly inherited auditory-pigmentary disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin and iris. Waardenburg syndrome is categorized into four subtypes based on clinical features (WS1-WS4). Here we present eight families (eleven patients) harboring pathogenic variants in SOX10. The patients displayed both allelic and clinical variability: bilateral profound hearing impairment (11/11), malformations of the semicircular canals (5/11), motor skill developmental delay (5/11), pigmentary defects (3/11) and Hirschsprung's disease (3/11) were some of the clinical manifestations observed. The patients demonstrate a spectrum of pathogenic SOX10 variants, of which six were novel (c.267del, c.299_300insA, c.335T >C, c.366_376del, c.1160_1179dup, and exon 3-4 deletion), and two were previously reported (c.336G>A and c.422T>C). Six of the variants occurred de novo whereas two were dominantly inherited. The pathogenic SOX10 variants presented here add novel information to the allelic variability of Waardenburg syndrome and illustrate the considerable clinical heterogeneity.

Keywords: CHARGE syndrome; Hearing impairment; SOX10; Semicircular canals; Waardenburg syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype*
  • SOXE Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Waardenburg Syndrome / genetics*
  • Waardenburg Syndrome / pathology


  • SOX10 protein, human
  • SOXE Transcription Factors