Maternal and Child Symptoms Following COVID-19 Vaccination Among Breastfeeding Mothers

Breastfeed Med. 2021 Sep;16(9):702-709. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2021.0079. Epub 2021 Jun 25.


Background: The impact of COVID-19 vaccination on breastfeeding is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether vaccine-related side effects following COVID-19 vaccination were associated with an adverse impact on breastfeeding. Secondarily, we sought to determine perceived symptoms in breastfed children and maternal opinion about COVID-19 vaccination. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of breastfeeding mothers who underwent COVID-19 vaccination >2 days before the survey. Subjects were recruited through social media and websites. Data included sociodemographic information, vaccine history, maternal and child symptoms, and impact on lactation/breastfeeding. Bivariate statistics (chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum, and t tests) and multivariable logistic regression models examined the association of vaccine side effects with lactation, symptoms in breastfed children, and maternal opinion on vaccination. Results: Analysis included 4,455 breastfeeding mothers. Maternal postvaccination symptoms were more common after the second dose (p < 0.001). Overall, 77 (1.7%) respondents reported a negative impact on breastfeeding postvaccination, and these mothers were more likely to have experienced fatigue, headache, muscle pain, injection site pain, chills, fever, or allergic reactions. After adjusting for confounding variables, higher odds of an adverse impact on lactation were associated with lower breastfeeding intensity, dose of vaccine, and child symptoms. Even among mothers who reported an adverse impact on breastfeeding, maternal opinion about vaccination and confidence in their decision to receive the COVID-19 vaccine were high. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccination among breastfeeding mothers resulted in minimal disruption of lactation or adverse impact on the breastfed child. These findings may be considered in vaccination decision-making.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; breastfeeding; immunization; lactation.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Feeding
  • COVID-19 Vaccines*
  • COVID-19*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mothers
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccination / adverse effects


  • COVID-19 Vaccines