Potential roles of super enhancers in inflammatory gene transcription

FEBS J. 2022 Oct;289(19):5762-5775. doi: 10.1111/febs.16089. Epub 2021 Jul 10.


Acute and chronic inflammation is a basic pathological event that contributes to atherosclerosis, cancer, infectious diseases, and immune disorders. Inflammation is an adaptive process to both external and internal stimuli experienced by the human body. Although the mechanism of gene transcription is highly complicated and orchestrated in a timely and spatial manner, recent developments in next-generation sequencing, genome-editing, cryo-electron microscopy, and single cell-based technologies could provide us with insights into the roles of super enhancers (SEs). Initially, SEs were implicated in determining cell fate; subsequent studies have clarified that SEs are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Recent technological advances have unveiled the molecular mechanisms of SEs, which involve epigenetic histone modifications, chromatin three-dimensional structures, and phase-separated condensates. In this review, we discuss the relationship between inflammation and SEs and the therapeutic potential of SEs for inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: inflammation; inflammatory gene transcription; super enhancer.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin
  • Cryoelectron Microscopy
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Chromatin