Characterization of bitter compounds in native and hybrid American hazelnuts

Food Chem. 2021 Nov 30:363:130311. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130311. Epub 2021 Jun 6.


The main objective of this study was to identify compounds that contribute to the bitter taste attributes of American hazelnuts (C. americana) and derived hybrids. Sensory-guided Prep-LC fractionation analysis selected four compounds as bitter that were further identified by MS and NMR as carpinontriol B, 2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl)acetic acid 3-O-6'-galactopyranosyl-2″-(2″oxoindolin-3″yl) acetate, giffonin-2-O-[(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid) and Afzelin, termed compounds 1-4, respectively. The concentrations of compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were determined across 88 American hybrid hazelnut genotypes and reported to be present at levels above their bitter threshold values in 94, 75, 25, and 0% of the samples, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of compounds 1 and 3 were significantly higher for nuts dehusked prior to drying during post-harvest handling, which is expected to result in a higher perceived bitter intensity.

Keywords: Bitterness; Corylus Americana; Nut drying methods; Threshold values.

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Fractionation
  • Corylus*
  • Nuts
  • Taste
  • United States