Characterization of bitter compounds in native and hybrid American hazelnuts

Food Chem. 2021 Nov 30:363:130311. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130311. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to identify compounds that contribute to the bitter taste attributes of American hazelnuts (C. americana) and derived hybrids. Sensory-guided Prep-LC fractionation analysis selected four compounds as bitter that were further identified by MS and NMR as carpinontriol B, 2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl)acetic acid 3-O-6'-galactopyranosyl-2″-(2″oxoindolin-3″yl) acetate, giffonin-2-O-[(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid) and Afzelin, termed compounds 1-4, respectively. The concentrations of compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were determined across 88 American hybrid hazelnut genotypes and reported to be present at levels above their bitter threshold values in 94, 75, 25, and 0% of the samples, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of compounds 1 and 3 were significantly higher for nuts dehusked prior to drying during post-harvest handling, which is expected to result in a higher perceived bitter intensity.

Keywords: Bitterness; Corylus Americana; Nut drying methods; Threshold values.

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Fractionation
  • Corylus*
  • Nuts
  • Taste
  • United States