Update on Pulmonary Cryptococcosis

Mycopathologia. 2021 Oct;186(5):717-728. doi: 10.1007/s11046-021-00575-9. Epub 2021 Jun 28.


Pulmonary cryptococcosis is a common but underdiagnosed opportunistic fungal infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The causal agents include at least eight evolutionary distinct haploid lineages as well as their hybrids of the human pathogenic Cryptococcus complex. In this update, we review recent advances in epidemiology, mode of transmission, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and therapy of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Our review suggests significant challenges and opportunities for research, from bedside to benchside and back to bedside.

Keywords: Cryptococcal genotypes; Diagnosis; Pulmonary infections; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cryptococcosis* / diagnosis
  • Cryptococcosis* / epidemiology
  • Cryptococcus neoformans*
  • Cryptococcus*
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal* / diagnosis
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal* / epidemiology
  • Opportunistic Infections*