Understanding what shapes the latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir is critical for developing strategies for cure. We measured frequency of persistent HIV-1 infection after 5 years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy initiated during chronic infection. Pretreatment CD8+ T-cell activation, nadir CD4 count, and CD4:CD8 ratio predicted reservoir size.
Keywords: HIV-1; T-cell activation; replication-competent virus; reservoir.
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