Glioblastoma, also referred to as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is an aggressive type of brain cancer. The prognosis for GBM is poor with an average medium survival rate of 12-15 months. GBM is highly challenging to treat due to neural stem cells phenotypic variations. These variations are determined by the tumor microenvironment (TME), which refers to all the molecules, cells, and structures that encompass and support other cells and tissues. Along with these, other vital components of the TME are fibroblasts, immune and inflammatory cells, blood and lymphatic vascular networks, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the vital components that form the TME and methods currently under development attempting to target each key area.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier; Brain tumor; Cancer; Carcinogens; Drugs; Extracellular matrix; Fibroblasts; Glioblastoma; Immune cells; Inflammatory cells; Signaling molecules; Targets; Therapeutic approach; Tumor microenvironment; Vascular networks.