Outflow Ventricular Septal Defect With Aortic Regurgitation: Optimal Timing of Surgery?

Ann Thorac Surg. 2022 Sep;114(3):873-880. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.05.080. Epub 2021 Jun 27.


Background: Ideal time of surgery still remains controversial in outflow ventricular septal defect (VSD) with aortic regurgitation (AR). We aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of postoperative AR progression.

Methods: A total of 154 patients with outflow VSD and AR who underwent VSD surgery between 2006 and 2012 were studied retrospectively.

Results: Eighty patients with subpulmonic VSD and 74 with subaortic VSD were followed up for mean 6.32 ± 2.27 years (range, 3-12 years). Of these, 100 had trivial to mild (group A) and 54 had moderate to severe preoperative AR (group B). At follow-up, there was no significant worsening of mean residual AR grade in group A (P = .16) and subpulmonic VSD of group B (P = .083). However, AR grade worsened significantly in subaortic VSD (1.85 ± 0.87 vs 2.21 ± 1.08, P = .005) of group B. Only 2 (both had subaortic VSD) patients of group A developed moderate AR and none required aortic valve replacement (AVR), while 23 (42.60%) of group B patients developed moderate or severe AR and 7 (30.4%) of them required AVR. Moreover, all who needed AVR had subaortic VSD and had undergone valvuloplasty during VSD closure. The 10 years freedom from moderate or severe AR was significantly lower in group B than group A in both VSDs (subaortic VSD 42.5% ± 10.7% vs 89.3% ± 8.1%, P < .01; subpulmonic VSD 66.7% ± 10.3% vs 100%, P< .01). On multiple regression analysis, postoperative residual AR was the only predictor of AR progression (standardized coefficient, 0.48; P < .001) at follow-up.

Conclusions: Mild preoperative AR rarely progressed after VSD repair. However, worsening of AR could not be prevented effectively, even with valvuloplasty, after the development of moderate or severe AR. Mild or more postoperative residual AR requires close follow-up, especially in subaortic VSD.

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency* / complications
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency* / epidemiology
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency* / surgery
  • Disease Progression
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular* / complications
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular* / surgery
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies