Water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):102156. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.029. Epub 2021 May 29.


Background and aims: The association of water intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relationship between water intake and the risk of T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus up to June 2018 for observational studies. Risk ratios (RR)s and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)s were calculated and fixed effects models were used.

Results: Overall, 6 studies were included in the meta-analyses. There was an inverse relationship between water intake and risk of T2DM (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.97, P < 0.001) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 24%, P = 0.24).

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the intake of water was correlated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in women and men. These results support the current recommendations of water intake as an inseparable part of a diet with the lowest risk of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Meta-analysis; Systematic review; Type 2 diabetes; Water drinking.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Drinking Water
  • Drinking*
  • Humans
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors


  • Drinking Water