Results of Robotic-Assisted Versus Manual Total Knee Arthroplasty at 2-Year Follow-up

J Knee Surg. 2023 Jan;36(2):159-166. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1731349. Epub 2021 Jun 29.


Robotic-assisted technology has been developed to optimize the consistency and accuracy of bony cuts, implant placements, and knee alignments for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). With recently developed designs, there is a need for the reporting longer than initial patient outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare manual and robotic-assisted TKA at 2-year minimum for: (1) aseptic survivorship; (2) reduced Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r-WOMAC) pain, physical function, and total scores; (3) surgical and medical complications; and (4) radiographic assessments for progressive radiolucencies. We compared 80 consecutive cementless robotic-assisted to 80 consecutive cementless manual TKAs. Patient preoperative r-WOMAC and demographics (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) were not found to be statistically different. Surgical data and medical records were reviewed for aseptic survivorship, medical, and surgical complications. Patients were administered an r-WOMAC survey preoperatively and at 2-year postoperatively. Mean r-WOMAC pain, physical function, and total scores were tabulated and compared using Student's t-tests. Radiographs were reviewed serially throughout patient's postoperative follow-up. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The aseptic failure rates were 1.25 and 5.0% for the robotic-assisted and manual cohorts, respectively. Patients in the robotic-assisted cohort had significantly improved 2-year postoperative r-WOMAC mean pain (1 ± 2 vs. 2 ± 3 points, p = 0.02), mean physical function (2 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 5 points, p = 0.009), and mean total scores (4 ± 5 vs, 6 ± 7 points, p = 0.009) compared with the manual TKA. Surgical and medical complications were similar in the two cohorts. Only one patient in the manual cohort had progressive radiolucencies on radiographic assessment. Robotic-assisted TKA patients demonstrated improved 2-year postoperative outcomes when compared with manual patients. Further studies could include multiple surgeons and centers to increase the generalizability of these results. The results of this study indicate that patients who undergo robotic-assisted TKA may have improved 2-year postoperative outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee* / adverse effects
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Knee Prosthesis*
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee*
  • Pain, Postoperative / etiology
  • Robotic Surgical Procedures* / methods
  • Treatment Outcome