Gram-negative bacteria maintain an intrinsic resistance mechanism against entry of noxious compounds by utilizing highly efficient efflux pumps. The E. coli AcrAB-TolC drug efflux pump contains the inner membrane H+/drug antiporter AcrB comprising three functionally interdependent protomers, cycling consecutively through the loose (L), tight (T) and open (O) state during cooperative catalysis. Here, we present 13 X-ray structures of AcrB in intermediate states of the transport cycle. Structure-based mutational analysis combined with drug susceptibility assays indicate that drugs are guided through dedicated transport channels toward the drug binding pockets. A co-structure obtained in the combined presence of erythromycin, linezolid, oxacillin and fusidic acid shows binding of fusidic acid deeply inside the T protomer transmembrane domain. Thiol cross-link substrate protection assays indicate that this transmembrane domain-binding site can also accommodate oxacillin or novobiocin but not erythromycin or linezolid. AcrB-mediated drug transport is suggested to be allosterically modulated in presence of multiple drugs.