The relationship between exchange rate and trade balance has been spotlighted in the past several decades and thus examined by manifold research. The findings, however, lack of consensus despite the intensive efforts in investigating the role of exchange rate as an important determinant of trade balance in various countries. Although the existing papers are abundant, most of them neglect the role of vehicle currency. Besides, few articles are dedicated to Vietnam, and none has inspected the exchange rate-trade balance nexus between Vietnam and the EU. This study is the first to scrutinize how bilateral exchange rates, together with vehicle currency exchange rate, asymmetrically impact Vietnam's bilateral trade balance with respect to EU-27 countries and the UK. The NARDL estimation results strongly acknowledge the importance of USD as vehicle currency when more significant short-run and long-run coefficients are found. Accordingly, this article can provide some useful implications for policy-makers, especially when Vietnam was first labelled currency manipulator by the USA in December 2020. Particularly, USD/VND movement can affect not only Vietnam-USA but also Vietnam-EU and Vietnam-UK trade balance. In addition, VND appreciation against USD seems beneficial to Vietnam's bilateral trade with the EU plus the UK.
Keywords: Asymmetric effects; EU; J-curve; Nonlinear ARDL; Trade balance; UK; Vehicle currency; Vietnam.
© 2021 The Author(s).