Purpose of review: To provide an updated review on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic assessment, treatment, and prognosis of localized vasculitis, following the 2012 Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature on single-organ vasculitis.
Recent findings: Localized, single-organ vasculitides encompass a group of rare conditions in which there is no evidence of concomitant systemic vasculitis. Most data on this topic derives from case reports and small case series. Although some aspects of these diseases, such as clinical manifestations and histologic findings, have already been extensively investigated, there is still a lack of robust data concerning the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment. Localized vasculitides may have a wide range of clinical features depending on the organ affected. The inflammatory process may have a multifocal/diffuse or unifocal distribution. Diagnosis is usually based on histopathology findings and exclusion of systemic vasculitis, which may frequently pose a challenge. Further research on treatment is warranted.
Keywords: Cutaneous arteritis; Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis; Isolated aortitis; Single-organ vasculitis.