In obese patients, enhanced serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), such as palmitate (PA) or oleate (OA), are associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory markers. Bacterial infection during periodontal disease also promotes local and systemic low-grade inflammation. How both conditions concomitantly impact tooth movement is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to address the changes in cytokine expression and the secretion of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLF) due to hyperlipidemic conditions, when additionally stressed by bacterial and mechanical stimuli. To investigate the impact of obesity-related hyperlipidemic FFA levels on HPdLF, cells were treated with 200 µM PA or OA prior to the application of 2 g/cm2 compressive force. To further determine the additive impact of bacterial infection, HPdLF were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis. In mechanically compressed HPdLF, PA enhanced COX2 expression and PGE2 secretion. When mechanically stressed HPdLF were additionally stimulated with LPS, the PGE2 and IL6 secretion, as well as monocyte adhesion, were further increased in PA-treated cultures. Our data emphasize that a hyperlipidemic condition enhances the susceptibility of HPdLF to an excessive inflammatory response to compressive forces, when cells are concomitantly exposed to bacterial components.
Keywords: inflammation; obesity; orthodontic tooth movement; periodontal ligament fibroblasts; periodontitis.