Characterization of Winter Dysentery Bovine Coronavirus Isolated from Cattle in Israel

Viruses. 2021 Jun 4;13(6):1070. doi: 10.3390/v13061070.


Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is the causative agent of winter dysentery (WD). In adult dairy cattle, WD is characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea and a reduction in milk production. Therefore, WD leads to significant economic losses in dairy farms. In this study, we aimed to isolate and characterize local BCoV strains. BCoV positive samples, collected during 2017-2021, were used to amplify and sequence the S1 domain of S glycoprotein and the full hemagglutinin esterase gene. Based on our molecular analysis, local strains belong to different genetic variants circulating in dairy farms in Israel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all local strains clustered together and in proximity to other BCoV circulating in the area. Additionally, we found that local strains are genetically distant from the reference enteric strain Mebus. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing molecular data on BCoV circulating in Israel.

Keywords: S1; bovine coronavirus; hemagglutinin esterase; spike; winter dysentery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cattle Diseases / virology
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / veterinary*
  • Coronavirus, Bovine / classification
  • Coronavirus, Bovine / genetics*
  • Coronavirus, Bovine / isolation & purification
  • Dairying
  • Dysentery / veterinary*
  • Dysentery / virology
  • Feces / virology
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Israel / epidemiology
  • Phylogeny*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Antigens, Viral