Heavy-Metal Contents and the Impact of Roasting on Polyphenols, Caffeine, and Acrylamide in Specialty Coffee Beans

Foods. 2021 Jun 7;10(6):1310. doi: 10.3390/foods10061310.


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of roasting on the contents of polyphenols (PPH), acrylamide (AA), and caffeine (CAF) and to analyze heavy metals in specialty coffee beans from Colombia (COL) and Nicaragua (NIC). Samples of NIC were naturally processed and COL was fermented anaerobically. Green beans from COL (COL-GR) and NIC (NIC-GR) were roasted at two levels, light roasting (COL-LIGHT and NIC-LIGHT) and darker roasting (COL-DARK and NIC-DARK), at final temperatures of 210 °C (10 min) and 215 °C (12 min), respectively. Quantitative analyses of PPH identified caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids, and dicaffeoylquinic acids. Isomer 5-CQA was present at the highest levels and reached 60.8 and 57.7% in COL-GR and NIC-GR, 23.4 and 29.3% in COL-LIGHT and NIC-LIGHT, and 18 and 24.2% in COL-DARK and NIC-DARK, respectively, of the total PPH. The total PPH contents were highest in COL-GR (59.76 mg/g dry matter, DM). Roasting affected the contents of PPH, CAF, and AA (p < 0.001, p < 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively). Nickel and cadmium contents were significantly higher in the COL-GR than in the NIC-GR beans. Darker roasting decreased AA content, but light roasting maintained similar amounts of CAF and total PPH.

Keywords: acrylamide; caffeine; chlorogenic acids; heavy metals; roasting; specialty coffee; tandem mass spectroscopy; ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.