It has been noted that Japanese children sleep the least in the world, and this has become a major social issue. This study examined the pathways linked to sleep habits (SH) among children and adolescents. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in March 2019 on children and their parents at all 63 public elementary and 29 public junior high schools in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. For the analysis, 22,385 pairs of children-parent responses (valid response rate: 68.8%) with no missing data were used. This survey collected data on SH, physical activity (PA), screen time (ST) for the child, and lifestyle and neighborhood social capital (NSC) for the parents. Moreover, the pathways linking 'NSC' → 'parental lifestyle' → 'child's PA/ST' →'child's SH' were examined through structural equation modeling. The results indicated that children's SH were affected by their PA and ST and influenced by the lifestyle of their parents and the NSC that surrounds them. Thus, we concluded that it is necessary to provide direct interventions and take additional measures with regard to parent lifestyle and their NSC to solve persistent sleep problems in children.
Keywords: neighborhood social capital; parental lifestyle; physical activity; school student; screen time.