Precision in breast reduction

Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988 Oct;82(4):631-43. doi: 10.1097/00006534-198810000-00012.


Precision in the design and performance of a breast reduction can be enhanced by careful formulation of the criteria. The breast cone should incline about 15 degrees medialward. The intersection of the midshoulder (anterior iliac) spine line with the inframammary fold offers a reference point for horizontal localization of the nipple. The nipple-suprasternal notch length, the diameter of the areola, and the nipple-inframammary fold length are determined by the height of the patient and the size of the brassiere cup. On this basis, a table for breast reduction can be drawn up that gives these dimensions for a given height and size of brassiere cup. Other important factors include the stretch direction of the skin and the course of the nerve to the nipple. A distinction is made between radial segment conization and anterior tangential conization. Criteria and measurements were incorporated into a technique comprising anterior tangential excision of glandular tissue and limited inferior radial segment excision of skin.

MeSH terms

  • Breast / anatomy & histology*
  • Breast / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Nipples / anatomy & histology
  • Surgery, Plastic / methods*