The response to induction chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor in patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced breast carcinomas. Assessment at mammography of the response of 60 breast cancers in 59 women was performed between 1974 and 1986. Responses were excellent in 13 tumors, moderate in 34, and poor in 13 (excellent moderate = 78%). Assessment of response of discrete masses in a fatty breast was easiest; assessment of response of tumor areas that were poorly defined-such as a focal area of architectural distortion or mass in dense breast parenchyma-was more difficult. Of 17 patients with excellent pathologic responses-that is, minimal or no residual tumor-15 (88%) had complete responses (no residual tumor) as determined with mammography, physical examination, or both. Mammography provides information complementary to physical examination and is essential in the accurate assessment of the response to chemotherapy of locally advanced breast cancer.