Primary breast osteosarcoma (PBO) is very rare. This report presents a case of POB that was evaluated by multiple modalities. A woman in her 70s presented with a mass of increasing size in her right breast. A mammogram and an ultrasound visualized a lobulated mass containing coarse calcification in the right breast. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a strong enhancement effect and high signal on diffusion-weighted imaging. Further imaging on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography and computed tomography exhibited a high uptake. A right total mastectomy was performed. Histologic examination revealed abundant periosteal formation, areas of calcification and moderately pleomorphic oval to spindle-shaped stromal cells, leading to the diagnosis of PBO. The presence of calcified breast tumors exhibiting aggressive growth indicates that PBO should be added to the differential diagnosis.
Keywords: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; mammography; primary breast osteosarcoma; ultrasound.