Ovarian cancer remains the gynecological cancer with the highest mortality rate. In our study, we compare a number of proteins from different effector pathways to assess their usefulness in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The tissue expression of the tested proteins was assessed by two methods: qRT-PCR and an immunohistochemical analysis. A significantly higher level of mRNA expression was found in the ovarian cancer group for YAP and TEAD4 (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). There was no statistical significance in the expression of mRNA for SMAD3, and there was borderline statistical significance for SMAD2 between the groups of ovarian cancer patients and other subgroups of patients with simple cysts and healthy ovarian tissue (p = 0.726 and p = 0.046, respectively). Significantly higher levels of transferrin receptor (CD71), H2A.X, and ADH1A gene expression were found in the ovarian cancer group compared to the control group for YAP, and TEAD4 showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in ovarian carcinoma and weak staining in non-carcinoma ovarian samples, ADH1A1 showed strong staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma sections and a weak positive reaction in the non-carcinoma section, H2A.X showed strong positive nuclear staining in carcinoma sections and moderate positive staining in non-carcinoma samples, and CD71 showed moderate positive staining in carcinoma and non-carcinoma samples. YAP, TEAD4, and ADH1A proteins appear to be promising biomarkers in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
Keywords: ALD1A1; CD71; H2A.X; SMAD2; SMAD3; TEAD4; TKT; TKTL1; YAP; ovarian cancer.