Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that have been associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and obesity. Adipose tissue in turn is an active endocrine organ capable of secreting a range of proinflammatory mediators with autocrine and paracrine properties, which contribute to the inflammation of adipose tissue and adjacent tissues. However, the potential inflammatory effects of MMPs in adipose tissue cells are still unknown. This study investigates the effects of BmooMPα-I, a single-domain snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), in activating an inflammatory response by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in culture, focusing on prostaglandins (PGs), cytokines, and adipocytokines biosynthesis and mechanisms involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. The results show that BmooMPα-I induced the release of PGE2, prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and adiponectin by preadipocytes. BmooMPα-I-induced PGE2 biosynthesis was dependent on group-IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA), cytosolic phospholipase A2-α (cPLA2-α), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 pathways. Moreover, BmooMPα-I upregulated COX-2 protein expression but not microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression. In addition, we demonstrate that the enzymatic activity of BmooMPα-I is essential for the activation of prostanoid synthesis pathways in preadipocytes. These data highlight preadipocytes as important targets for metalloproteinases and provide new insights into the contribution of these enzymes to the inflammation of adipose tissue and tissues adjacent to it.
Keywords: adipokines; cytokines; metalloproteinase; preadipocytes; prostaglandins.