Implications of Governance, Natural Resources, and Security Threats on Economic Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 9;18(12):6236. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126236.


Sub-Saharan African countries are known to be bedeviled with some challenges hindering the economic development. Meanwhile, some of these issues have not been exhaustively investigated in the context of the region. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the implications of government effectiveness, availability of natural resources, and security threats on the regions' economic development. Yearly data, spanning from 2007 to 2020, was converted from low frequency (yearly) to high frequency (quarterly) and utilized. Data analysis was conducted using Dynamic heterogeneous panel level estimators (PMG and CS-ARDL). Findings show that while PMG estimator confirms a long-run causal effect of governance, natural resources, and security threats on economic development, only natural resources show a short-run causal effect with economic development, while the CS-ARDL (model 2) confirms the significance of all the variables both in the long and short-run. Moreover, the ECT coefficients for both models were found to be statistically significant at less than 1% significance level, which indicates that the systems return back to equilibrium in case of a shock that causes disequilibrium, and in addition, reveals a stable long-run cointegration among the variables in the model. Finally, this study suggests that the policy makers in SSA countries should place more emphasis on improving governance, managing security challenges, and effectively utilizing rents from the natural resources, as all these have severe implications for the economic development of the region if not addressed.

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; economic development; government effectiveness; natural resources; security.

MeSH terms

  • Africa South of the Sahara
  • Carbon Dioxide / analysis
  • Economic Development*
  • Natural Resources*


  • Carbon Dioxide