Traffic Density-Related Black Carbon Distribution: Impact of Wind in a Basin Town

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 16;18(12):6490. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126490.


Black carbon is one of the riskiest particle matter pollutants that is harmful to human health. Although it has been increasingly investigated, factors that depend on black carbon distribution and concentration are still insufficiently researched. Variables, such as traffic density, wind speeds, and ground levels can lead to substantial variations of black carbon concentrations and potential exposure, which is even riskier for people living in less-airy sites. Therefore, this paper "fills the gaps" by studying black carbon distribution variations, concentrations, and oscillations, with special emphasis on traffic density and road segments, at multiple locations, in a small city located in a basin, with frequent temperature inversions and infrequent low wind speeds. As wind speed has a significant impact on black carbon concentration trends, it is critical to present how low wind speeds influence black carbon dispersion in a basin city, and how black carbon is dependent on traffic density. Our results revealed that when the wind reached speeds of 1 ms-1, black carbon concentrations actually increased. In lengthy wind periods, when wind speeds reached 2 or 3 ms-1, black carbon concentrations decreased during rush hour and in the time of severe winter biomass burning. By observing the results, it could be concluded that black carbon persists longer in higher altitudes than near ground level. Black carbon concentration oscillations were also seen as more pronounced on main roads with higher traffic density. The more the traffic decreases and becomes steady, the more black carbon concentrations oscillate.

Keywords: air pollution; basin city; black carbon; traffic density; traffic pollution; wind conditions.

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Air Pollution* / analysis
  • Carbon
  • Cities
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Humans
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Vehicle Emissions / analysis
  • Wind


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter
  • Vehicle Emissions
  • Carbon