The Effect of Brewing Process Parameters on Antioxidant Activity and Caffeine Content in Infusions of Roasted and Unroasted Arabica Coffee Beans Originated from Different Countries

Molecules. 2021 Jun 16;26(12):3681. doi: 10.3390/molecules26123681.


Coffee is one of the most often consumed beverages almost all over the world. The multiplicity of beans, as well as the methods and parameters used to brew, encourages the optimization of the brewing process. The study aimed to analyze the effect of roasting beans, the brewing technique, and its parameters (time and water temperature) on antioxidant activity (determined using several in vitro methods), total polyphenols, flavonoids, and caffeine content. The infusions of unroasted and roasted Arabica beans from Brazil, Colombia, India, Peru, and Rwanda were analyzed. In general, infusions prepared from roasted beans had higher antioxidant activity and the content of above-mentioned compounds. The hot brew method was used to obtain infusions with a higher antioxidant activity, while the cold brew with higher caffeine content. The phenolic compound content in infusions prepared using both techniques depended on the roasting process. Moreover, the bean's origin, roasting process, and brewing technique had a significant effect on the tested properties, in contrary to brewing time and water temperature (below and above 90 °C), which had less impact. The results confirm the importance of coffee brewing optimization.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; brewing methods; caffeine; coffee Arabica; flavonoids; pH of infusions; polyphenols; roasting process; tannins.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Beverages
  • Biphenyl Compounds / analysis
  • Brazil
  • Caffeine / analysis
  • Coffea / chemistry
  • Coffee / chemistry*
  • Colombia
  • India
  • Peru
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Water / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Coffee
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Water
  • Caffeine