Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in children and adolescents. In Spain the annual incidence is 4.4 cases per million children < 14 years. It is an uncommon neoplasm in adults, but 40% of RMS are diagnosed in patients over 20 years of age, representing 1% of all STS in this age group. RMS can appear anywhere in the body, with some sites more frequently affected including head and neck, genitourinary system and limbs. Assessment of a patient with suspicion of RMS includes imaging studies (MRI, CT, PET-CT) and biopsy. All patients with RMS should receive chemotherapy, either at diagnosis in advanced or metastatic stages, or after initial resection in early local stages. Local control includes surgery and/or radiotherapy depending on site, stage, histology and response to chemotherapy. This guide provides recommendations for diagnosis, staging and treatment of this neoplasm.
Keywords: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma; Prognostic factors; Rhabdomyosarcoma.
© 2021. Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO).