Quality assessment of frozen bull semen with the precursor A-kinase anchor protein 4 biomarker

Andrologia. 2021 Oct;53(9):e14164. doi: 10.1111/and.14164. Epub 2021 Jul 2.


In this study, the quality of frozen bull semen was evaluated with the proAKAP4 level test. Sixty straws of frozen bull semen from various batches (n = 30) belonging to six bulls were used in the current study. The frozen bull semen samples were analysed in terms of proAKAP4 levels, sperm morphology and sperm movement parameters at hour 0 and hour 3 after thawing. The semen samples were divided into three groups according to the proAKAP4 levels: low concentration (<25 ng/10x106 spermatozoa), moderate concentration (25 to 39 ng/10x106 spermatozoa) and high concentration (≥40 ng/10x106 spermatozoa). A positive correlation was found between the proAKAP4 level and total motility (TM3 ), progressive motility (PM3 ), VSL3 and VCL3 values obtained after the third-hour thermoresistance test (p < .05). There was a negative correlation between the percentage of sperm abnormal tail and the proAKAP4 level (p < .01). In addition, it was observed that the semen samples with proAKAP4 concentrations of 25 ng/106 spermatozoa and higher preserved the TM3 and PM3 motility characteristics. In conclusion, the proAKAP4 has the potential to become a biomarker protein to evaluate in the quality analysis of frozen-thawed semen.

Keywords: advanced sperm analysis techniques; computer-assisted sperm analysis; proteomics; semen proteins.

MeSH terms

  • A Kinase Anchor Proteins
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Cattle
  • Cryopreservation
  • Male
  • Semen Analysis
  • Semen Preservation* / veterinary
  • Semen*
  • Sperm Motility
  • Spermatozoa


  • A Kinase Anchor Proteins
  • Biomarkers