Effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on the inner ear function and serum prestin concentration

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2021 Jul 2. doi: 10.1007/s00405-021-06967-3. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: One of the main side effects of chemotherapy with cisplatin is irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between the serum prestin concentration as a potential cochlear biomarker and audiologic findings in patients after cisplatin chemotherapy.

Methods: A total of 52 patients aged 18-75 years were included in this prospective study. All the subjects were recruited from the radiotherapy and oncology center of a tertiary hospital in Rasht, Iran. Audiologic parameters evaluations and serum prestin concentrations were measured at baseline and after 1-3 weeks of chemotherapy. The inner ear function was evaluated by pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion product of otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). A repeated-measure analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the relationship between the PTA, DPOAE, serum prestin concentration and cumulative cisplatin dose.

Results: Fifty-two patients (36 females) participated in this study. The PTA results showed that ototoxicity was more frequent among the patients with a high cumulative dose of cisplatin (χ2 trend = 15.25; P < 0.001). DPOAE responses revealed that 38.5% of the patients had ototoxicity change after 40-80 mg of cisplatin administration. After receiving 40-80 mg of cisplatin, serum prestin concentration increased from 130 to 230 pg/ml. There is a significant positive correlation between prestin concentration after receiving more than 80 mg of cisplatin and the ototoxic changes in the DPOAE response.

Conclusion: The present study showed correlations between prestin concentrations and ototoxicity diagnosis by DPOAE findings. An early rise in prestin concentration is particularly important and an early sign of hearing loss. Future studies are recommended to investigate the effect of varying doses of cisplatin on prestin concentration and any association between ototoxicity and clinicopathological features.

Keywords: Biomarker; Cisplatin; Otoacoustic emissions; Ototoxicity; Prestin; Pure tone audiometry.