Progress and prospect in tumor treating fields treatment of glioblastoma

Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Sep:141:111810. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111810. Epub 2021 Jun 30.


Glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenging cancer with poor prognosis. The classical standard for treatment is safe resection, followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with subsequent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Despite several attempts at different treatments, the 5-year survival rate remains poor. In recent years, with the continuous progress of treatment technology, tumor treating fields (TTFields) were preferable. The device could generate an intermediate frequency alternating electric field and induce apoptosis of some specific types of cancer cells with few toxic and side effects. TTFields induced apoptosis through multiple activations of the pathway. TTFields have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for diagnosis and recurrent GBM as additional clinical trial results are revealed. This study reviewed the current status, mechanisms, correlations with immune pathways, the prospects of applying TTFields for GBM, and the adverse events.

Keywords: Adverse events; Glioblastoma; Radiotherapy; Tumor treating fields.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use
  • Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Brain Neoplasms / surgery
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Chemoradiotherapy / trends
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy
  • Glioblastoma / surgery
  • Glioblastoma / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neurosurgical Procedures
  • Temozolomide / therapeutic use


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Temozolomide