Epilepsy can now be diagnosed even in the presence of one unprovoked seizure or if the diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome can be made. Epilepsy syndromes represent a specific set of seizure types and electroencephalographic and imaging features that tend to have age-dependent features, triggers, and prognosis. Epilepsy syndromes are the third and final level of epilepsy diagnosis, after classification of seizure and epilepsy types. Some epilepsy syndromes are self-limiting and pharmacoresponsive and others are pharmacoresistant and associated with poor developmental outcomes (epileptic and developmental encephalopathy). Features and management of 7 common age-dependent pediatric epilepsy syndromes are described.
Keywords: Childhood absence epilepsy; Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes; Dravet syndrome; Epilepsy; Epilepsy syndrome; Infantile spasms; Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
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