Epilepsy: Epileptic Syndromes and Treatment

Neurol Clin. 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002.


Epilepsy can now be diagnosed even in the presence of one unprovoked seizure or if the diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome can be made. Epilepsy syndromes represent a specific set of seizure types and electroencephalographic and imaging features that tend to have age-dependent features, triggers, and prognosis. Epilepsy syndromes are the third and final level of epilepsy diagnosis, after classification of seizure and epilepsy types. Some epilepsy syndromes are self-limiting and pharmacoresponsive and others are pharmacoresistant and associated with poor developmental outcomes (epileptic and developmental encephalopathy). Features and management of 7 common age-dependent pediatric epilepsy syndromes are described.

Keywords: Childhood absence epilepsy; Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes; Dravet syndrome; Epilepsy; Epilepsy syndrome; Infantile spasms; Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy* / diagnosis
  • Epilepsy* / therapy
  • Epileptic Syndromes* / diagnosis
  • Epileptic Syndromes* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Prognosis