Economic evaluation in psychiatric pharmacogenomics: a systematic review

Pharmacogenomics J. 2021 Aug;21(4):533-541. doi: 10.1038/s41397-021-00249-1. Epub 2021 Jul 2.


Nowadays, many relevant drug-gene associations have been discovered, but pharmacogenomics (PGx)-guided treatment needs to be cost-effective as well as clinically beneficial to be incorporated into standard health care. To address current challenges, this systematic review provides an update regarding previously published studies, which assessed the cost-effectiveness of PGx testing for the prescription of antidepressants and antipsychotics. From a total of 1159 studies initially identified by literature database querying, and after manual assessment and curation of all of them, a mere 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of the 18 studies evaluations, 16 studies (88.89%) drew conclusions in favor of PGx testing, of which 9 (50%) genome-guided interventions were cost-effective and 7 (38.9%) were less costly compared to standard treatment based on cost analysis. More precisely, supportive evidence exists for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 drug-gene associations and for combinatorial PGx panels, but evidence is limited for many other drug-gene combinations. Amongst the limitations of the field are the unclear explanation of perspective and cost inputs, as well as the underreporting of study design elements, which can influence though the economic evaluation. Overall, the findings of this article demonstrate that although there is growing evidence on the cost-effectiveness of genome-guided interventions in psychiatric diseases, there is still a need for performing additional research on economic evaluations of PGx implementation with an emphasis on psychiatric disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antipsychotic Agents / economics*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis / economics
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / drug therapy
  • Mental Disorders / economics*
  • Mental Disorders / genetics*
  • Pharmacogenetics / economics*
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods


  • Antipsychotic Agents