Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare malignancy, classified according to the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) classification, whose response to treatment remains highly heterogeneous within the high-grade (HG) category. Molecular profiling of PMP cases might help to better categorize patients and predict treatment responses.
Methods: We studied the Ki-67 proliferation rate and P53 overexpression in tissue samples from our historical cohort of HG-PMP patients. We established as cut-off levels the third quartile of each marker to perform univariate and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses. According to these results, the HG-PMP category was divided into subcategories and a new survival analysis was performed.
Results: A total of 90/117 patients with PMP undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) were selected for secondary analysis. The survival analysis of the HG-PMP category for preoperative variables showed that a proliferation index defined by Ki-67 >15% is a bad prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-8.25). Accordingly, the HG-PMP group was divided using the Ki-67 15% cut-off. The new PSOGI/Ki-67 variable was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS), with an HR of 3.74 (95% CI 1.88-7.47), and disease-free survival (DFS), with an HR of 4.184 (95% CI 1.79-9.75). The estimated 5-year OS rate was 100%, 70% and 24% for the LG-PMP, HG-PMP ≤15% and HG-PMP >15% groups, respectively (p = 0.0001), while the 5-year DFS rate was 90%, 44% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.0001).
Conclusion: Division of the HG-PMP category of the PSOGI classification, according to the Ki-67 proliferation index, provides two well-defined subcategories, with significant differences in terms of OS and DFS, and hence high prognostic value.
© 2021. Society of Surgical Oncology.