Irisin, a newly discovered protein hormone that is secreted in response to low frequency whole body vibration (LFV), could be a promising post-stroke rehabilitation therapy for patients who are frail and cannot comply with regular rehabilitation therapy. Irisin is generated from a membrane-bound precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Aside from being highly expressed in muscle, FNDC5 is highly expressed in the brain. The cleaved form of FNDC5 was found in the cerebrospinal fluid as well as in various regions of the brain. Numerous studies suggest that irisin plays a key role in brain metabolism and inflammation regulation. Both the metabolism and inflammation govern stroke outcome, and in a published study, we demonstrated that LFV therapy following middle cerebral artery occlusion significantly reduced innate immune response, improved motor function and infarct volume in reproductively senescent female rats. The observed effect of LFV therapy could be working via irisin, therefore, the current review focuses to understand various aspects of irisin including its mechanism of action on the brain.
Keywords: Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5); Low frequency whole-body vibration (LFV); Menopause; Physical exercise; Stroke.
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