Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regeneration capacity to recover its structure and function after injury, except for the traumatic loss of critical muscle volume, called volumetric muscle loss (VML). Although many extremity VML models have been conducted, craniofacial VML has not been well-studied due to unavailable in vivo assay tools. Here, this paper reports a wireless, noninvasive nanomembrane system that integrates skin-wearable printed sensors and electronics for real-time, continuous monitoring of VML on craniofacial muscles. The craniofacial VML model, using biopsy punch-induced masseter muscle injury, shows impaired muscle regeneration. To measure the electrophysiology of small and round masseter muscles of active mice during mastication, a wearable nanomembrane system with stretchable graphene sensors that can be laminated to the skin over target muscles is utilized. The noninvasive system provides highly sensitive electromyogram detection on masseter muscles with or without VML injury. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the wireless sensor can monitor the recovery after transplantation surgery for craniofacial VML. Overall, the presented study shows the enormous potential of the masseter muscle VML injury model and wearable assay tool for the mechanism study and the therapeutic development of craniofacial VML.
Keywords: craniofacial volumetric muscle loss (VML); electromyograms; muscle resident stem cells; nanomembrane sensors; wireless soft electronics.
© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.