Genetic Determinants for Bacterial Osteomyelitis: A Focused Systematic Review of Published Literature

Front Genet. 2021 Jun 17;12:654792. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2021.654792. eCollection 2021.


Background: Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process characterized by progressive bone destruction. Moreover, chronic bacterial osteomyelitis is regarded as a difficult-to-treat clinical entity due to its long-standing course and frequent infection recurrence. However, the role of genetic factors in the occurrence and development of bacterial osteomyelitis is poorly understood. Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the frequency of individual alleles and genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among patients with bacterial osteomyelitis and healthy people to identify whether the SNPs are associated with the risk of developing bacterial osteomyelitis. Then, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes analyses were performed to identify the potential biological effects of these genes on the pathogenesis of bacterial osteomyelitis. Result: Fourteen eligible studies containing 25 genes were analyzed. In this review, we discovered that the SNPs in IL1B, IL6, IL4, IL10, IL12B, IL1A, IFNG, TNF, PTGS2, CTSG, vitamin D receptor (VDR), MMP1, PLAT, and BAX increased the risk of bacterial osteomyelitis, whereas those in IL1RN and TLR2 could protect against osteomyelitis. The bioinformatic analysis indicated that these osteomyelitis-related genes were mainly enriched in inflammatory reaction pathways, suggesting that inflammation plays a vital role in the development of bacterial osteomyelitis. Furthermore, functional notation for 25 SNPs in 17 significant genes was performed using the RegulomeDB and NCBI databases. Four SNPs (rs1143627, rs16944, rs2430561, and rs2070874) had smaller scores from regulome analysis, implying significant biological function. Conclusion: We systematically summarized several SNPs linked to bacterial osteomyelitis and discovered that these gene polymorphisms could be a genetic factor for bacterial osteomyelitis. Moreover, further large-scale cohort studies are needed to enhance our comprehensive understanding of the development of osteomyelitis to provide earlier individualized preventions and interventions for patients with osteomyelitis in clinical practice.

Keywords: genetic polymorphism; genotype; osteomyelitis; susceptibility; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review