Smoking among High School Students in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study

Iran J Psychiatry. 2021 Apr;16(2):226-237. doi: 10.18502/ijps.v16i2.5823.


Objective: Cigarette smoking is an important and preventable risk factor, especially for adolescents and high school students. This issue has become one of the challenges for health system. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking among Iranian high school students. Method : This systematic review and meta-analysis study was done by searching PubMed, Scopus, Web Science (WOS), Science Direct, SID, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: "student" and "smoking" from 2000 to March 2018. After initial and critical appraisal, data were entered into a checklist and analyzed by a comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: The prevalence of smoking was 7.9% by combining the results of 49 articles. Males and females had 10.6% and 4.5% smoking prevalence, respectively. The overall prevalence of smoking was higher in northern areas in Iran (22.4%). Males in the northern (22.4%) and females in western regions (5.3%) were more smokers. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of smoking with the year of publication, sample size, and age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, Students' tendency to smoke was different in various regions of Iran, and had a high rate (7.9%). This figure indicates the necessity for planning some coherent educational programs for the public.

Keywords: Cigarette; Iran; Meta-Analysis; Prevalence; Students; Systematic Review.

Publication types

  • Review