Nineteen patients with inv(16)(p13q22) or del(16) in myeloid leukemia are described. Eight showed inv(16)(p13q22), including one with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) and seven with de novo acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML-M4). Additional chromosome changes were detected in five of the cases; the most common change was trisomy 22. All but one of the de novo M2 and M4 leukemia patients with inv(16)(p13q22) showed initial bone marrow eosinophilia (greater than 5%) with basophilic granules. The remaining 11 showed deletion of the long arm of a chromosome no. 16 [del(16)(q22 or q23)]. Eight of the 11 were diagnosed as having chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, three transformed into an acute phase with M4 morphology; none of them gained complete remission. Two of the remaining three patients with del(16) were diagnosed as having M4 leukemia without marrow eosinophilia. The remaining one was a case of M4 leukemia following a myelodysplastic syndrome. The findings indicate that del(16) might be related to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or leukemia with a prior history of myelodysplastic syndrome without evidence of marrow eosinophilia. On the other hand, inv(16)(p13q22) is highly associated with de novo AML especially AMML-M4 with bone marrow eosinophilia and a favorable prognosis.