Does diabetes mellitus predispose to both rotator cuff surgery and subsequent failure?

JSES Int. 2021 Apr 20;5(4):636-641. doi: 10.1016/j.jseint.2021.03.002. eCollection 2021 Jul.

Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with the etiology of rotator cuff disease; however, its effect on healing after surgical rotator cuff repair (RCR) is not well characterized. The purposes of this study are to analyze the association between DM and surgical RCR, the association between DM and revision RCR after RCR, and the association between DM and the cost of RCR.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of claims data of privately and publicly insured subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan database from 2008 to 2017 was conducted, collecting RCR cases and controls matched for age, sex, year of RCR, and first and last year in the database. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare DM incidence within the RCR and control groups after adjusting for all matching variables plus region, insurance plan type, tobacco use, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare rates of revision RCR between DM and non-DM groups after adjusting for patient age, sex, year of RCR, plan type, and CCI. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze RCR cost, and exponentiated regression coefficients were reported to represent cost ratios.

Results: The full analysis cohort consisted of 292,666 RCR cases and matched controls. The adjusted odds of having RCR surgery in diabetic patients was 48% higher (odds ratio = 1.48 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.46 to 1.51], P < .001) than nondiabetics. DM was not significantly associated with revision RCR after RCR when adjusting for age, sex, region, plan type, tobacco use, year of RCR, and CCI (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.07, P = .17). Diabetes was associated with a higher cost of RCR by 3% (ratio = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03, P < .001).

Conclusions: Diabetic patients are at a higher risk of undergoing RCR surgery; however, there is no association between DM and subsequent rotator cuff revision surgery.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; MarketScan; Medical comorbidities; Rotator cuff repair; Rotator cuff tear.