Background: Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) are increasingly studied because they are suspected unfavorably to impact health (irritable bowel syndrome in particular). However, little is known about FODMAP intake in the general population, or which groups are more likely to consume them, because their intakes are usually assessed in inpatient settings.
Objectives: This study aimed to describe FODMAP consumption in a large French cohort and its association with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Methods: This cross-sectional study described FODMAP intakes in 109,362 volunteers (78.0% female, mean age 43.8 ± 14.7 y) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort, using an ad hoc FODMAP composition table. Associations between FODMAP intakes and sociodemographic characteristics were investigated using χ2 tests or Kruskal-Wallis tests according to the qualitative or quantitative status of the variable, and multinomial logistic regressions were performed after adjusting for energy intake in sensitivity analyses. Eligible participants had completed ≥3 detailed 24-h food records.
Results: We observed a mean intake of 18.9 ± 9.5 g/d FODMAPs in this French cohort, and 11.7% of participants had intakes <9 g/d (i.e., low-FODMAP diets). Participants with FODMAP intakes <9 g/d were more likely to have lower caloric intakes (Δ = 383 kcal/d compared with participants with FODMAP intakes ≥16 g/d), to be smokers, to have lower incomes, and to have lower levels of physical activity. Total FODMAPs accounted for a mean intake of 18.9 ± 9.5 g/d, which was 3.7 ± 2.0% of total energy intake. The highest intake of FODMAPs was represented by lactose followed by excess fructose, fructans, polyols, and galacto-oligo-saccharides.
Conclusions: FODMAP consumption by a large sample of adults from the general population is ∼19 g/d, with half of the population having a FODMAP intake >16 g/d.This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03335644.
Keywords: 24-h food records; FODMAP consumption; French population-based cohort; NutriNet-Santé study; composition table; cross-sectional study.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.