A comprehensive numerical design of firefighting systems for onshore petroleum installations

Korean J Chem Eng. 2021;38(9):1768-1780. doi: 10.1007/s11814-021-0820-6. Epub 2021 Jun 30.


Petroleum facilities containing welded steel bulk flammable liquid product storage tanks possess sundry fire hazards inherent to the facility. These installations urgently require indigenous efficient firefighting systems. So, the efficient design of firewater and firefighting foam system is dynamic in controlling fire-related emergencies. The paper deals with the in-depth conceptualization of the design and analysis of firefighting systems for a typical petroleum handling, processing and storage facility in compliance with international standards. The study is aimed to formulate the elementary technique for designing an optimized firefighting system. The proposed objective was achieved by considering an ideal tank farm site that is most commonly located in a range of terminal stations, pumping stations, petroleum refineries, well sites, etc. Sufficient illumination was enumerated on the standardized classification of the liquid fuel product with respect their flammability range. Special guidelines regarding firefighting system design basis were defined and an optimized firefighting and foam system design was developed. Moreover, sufficient limitations that must be considered during the firefighting of huge tank fires are discussed. This comprehensive numerical design philosophy offers a simple and wide-ranging guide to industrial practitioners by formulating the principles for industrial firefighting system design.

Keywords: Design Philosophy; Explosion; Fire; Firefighting Foam; Firewater; Petroleum Storage Tanks.