X-linked intellectual disability can be diagnosed in about 10-12% of intellectually disabled males. In the past, mutations affecting the PAK3 gene (p21 protein-activated kinase 3, MIM#300142) have been associated with a non-syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability, which has to date been identified in a limited number of families.Since this neurodevelopmental disorder mostly afflicts males, descriptions of symptomatic female carriers are quite rare.We describe a female patient with neurodevelopmental delay and a novel PAK3 variant. Interestingly, she manifests craniofacial anomalies, including microcephaly, representing the second reported microcephalic female but the first for whom a detailed clinical description is available. She also displays other uncommon clinical findings, which we illustrate.Moreover, a comprehensive clinical and molecular review of all to date published patients has been made. This study contributes to further delineate the PAK3-related phenotype, which can be considered a non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability, with seemingly recurrent craniofacial abnormalities.
Keywords: Craniofacial dysmorphisms; Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay; PAK3.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.