Neuroprotective effect of green and roasted coffee bean extracts on cerebral ischemia-induced injury in rats

Metab Brain Dis. 2021 Oct;36(7):1943-1956. doi: 10.1007/s11011-021-00769-6. Epub 2021 Jul 2.


Stroke is a lethal event with a high incidence in Egypt. Quick early intervention can be lifesaving. Transient global ischemia (TGI), a type of ischemic stroke, is mainly instigated by cardiac arrest. Ischemia followed by reperfusion causes further neuronal cell damage. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of green (GCBE) and roasted (RCBE) coffee bean water extract against transient global ischemia-induced via a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CAO) in rats. Before CAO, 1.5 ml/kg body weight/day of GCBE or RCBE was administered for 14 days by oral gavage. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and sham groups were treated with a vehicle. Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme activities, such as MDA, NO, GSH, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB, and BDNF were investigated. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, in addition to heme oxygenase 1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 were determined. Apoptotic markers, including Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3, in addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor-a, were investigated, followed by an examination of hippocampal histopathology. Pre-administration of GCBE and RCBE improved neurological function and neuronal survival, suppressed the spread of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, and reversed most of the pathological changes. However, green coffee bean extract was more effective than roasted coffee bean extract, perhaps due to the roasting process, which may affect active compounds. In conclusion, GCBE and RCBE represent a potential clinical strategy for pre-ischemic conditioning.

Keywords: BDNF; Coffee beans; Ischemia/reperfusion; Neuroprotection; Nrf2; Oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Brain Ischemia* / drug therapy
  • Brain Ischemia* / metabolism
  • Coffee
  • Ischemia / drug therapy
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Rats
  • Reperfusion Injury* / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


  • Coffee
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A