Seizure semiology in temporal lobe vs. temporal plus epilepsy using intracranial EEG monitoring

Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2021 Jul;26(3):261-269. doi: 10.17712/nsj.2021.3.20200156.


Objectives: To utilize our tertiary center's experience with Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and Temporal plus epilepsy (TPE) cases and determine whether a correlation exists between ictal semiology signs, their localization/lateralization value after intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, and surgical outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among epilepsy patients who underwent resective surgery for TLE or TPE after intracranial EEG monitoring between January 2008 and December 2018 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were retrieved for 464 patients; 181 had intracranial electrode monitoring.

Results: Forty-eight patients with a mean age of 27 years (SD=8.4) were included; 15 patients had TPE. Auras were frequently reported, emotional auras, in the form of fear (35%). The localization/lateralization value of aura was statistically significant for TPE patients, including visual hallucinations and vertigo, lateralized to the left and right temporo-occipital, respectively (p=0.009 and <0.001). Early-onset ictal manual automatism, oral automatism, late-onset dystonic posture, and late head-turning were significant for TLE without significant lateralization value. The ictal onset zone's localization was significant between the scalp and intracranial EEG findings in mesial TLE patients. The probability of seizure freedom (Engel class I) was 74%, 60%, and 67% at 2-year follow-up for mesial, lateral TLE, and TPE, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results are consistent with previous studies and confirm the importance of ictal semiology signs in TLE and TPE. The addition of intracranial EEG monitoring in these cases helped improve the surgical outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Electrocorticography*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy*
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Seizures / diagnosis
  • Temporal Lobe