Blood and faecal samples from 2086 Sahelian and Djallonke sheep have been collected to assess the epidemiology and spatio-temporal distribution of gastrointestinal parasites. A survey with a questionnaire allowed collecting data on individual animal and farms. Faecal samples were analysed using the McMaster technique, while anaemia was assessed using FAMACHA score test and packed cell volume. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 91%, and strongyles (70.7%), Eimeria sp. (60.4%), Moniezia sp. (5.7%), Stronyloides sp. (0.9%) were identified. There was no significant association between the region and strongyles infection (P ˃ 0.05). Animals sampled during the rainy season (n = 565; P = 82.2%, mean EPG = 154.8 ± 12.02) were mostly and heavily infected than those from the hot dry (n = 518; P = 74.2%; mean EPG = 97.7 ± 17.4) and the cold dry season (n = 392; P = 55.5%; mean EPG = 24.5 ± 19.5) (P ˂ 0.05). Females (n = 1027; P = 72.1%; mean EPG = 77.6 ± 17) were most infected than males (n = 448; P = 67.7%; mean EPG = 61.6 ± 19.5) (P ˂ 0.05). Animals that were treated, at most 3 months before sampling (n = 166; P = 61.5%; mean EPG = 41.7 ± 21.4), were less infected than those, which received this treatment after three months before sampling (n = 199; P = 74.8%; mean EPG = 89.1 ± 15.8) (P ˂ 0.05). Data from blood samples indicate that 6.5% of sheep was anaemic (PCV ≤ 19%), while 59.7% was noted anaemic regarding FAMACHA scores. PCV values varied significantly for FAMACHA scores, and the highest mean value was noted for score 1 (27.6) (P ˂ 0.05). The Cohen's kappa score between FAMACHA and PCV was 0.02. These findings suggest that strongyles infections are significantly associated with season, and heavier infections were noted during rainy season.
Keywords: Anaemia; Burkina Faso; Gastro-intestinal parasites; Sheep.