Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a condition that has no clinical signs and symptoms. LTBI patients are characterized by persistent immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and approximately 5-10% of these infected individuals will develop active TB at some point in their lives. The antigen transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1) is a protein involved in the transport of the antigen from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum by means of the association with MHC class I molecules. It plays a fundamental role in the immune response, promoting the clearance of intracellular pathogens. Our pilot study aimed to determine the association between TAP1 gene 1177A>G (rs1057141) and 2090A>G (rs1135216) genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to LTBI. In this case-control study, 153 individuals from shelters were analyzed (46 were LTBI-positive and 92 were controls). Genotyping of the rs11352216 (2090A>G) and rs1057141 (1177A>G) gene IDs was performed using the Applied Biosystems Step One Thermal Cycler Real-Time PCR allelic discrimination technology. The haplotypic analyses were performed with the Arlequin 3.5 program. Social assistance centers and shelters that serve vulnerable populations represent high-risk sites due to overcrowding and the impaired nutritional status of their residents. The G allele (OR=1.99, CI=1.109-3.587, p=0.021) and the GG genotype of rs11352216 (A>G) were associated with susceptibility to LTBI, according to the codominant genetic model (OR=8.32, CI=1.722-61.98, p=0.007). The rs1057141 (A>G) polymorphism was not associated with LTBI risk. The results suggest that carriers of the G allele of rs1135216 (A>G) are susceptible to LTBI.