Concomitance of a novel RMDN2-ALK fusion and an EML4-ALK fusion in a lung adenocarcinoma

Cancer Genet. 2021 Nov;258-259:18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2021.06.004. Epub 2021 Jun 23.


The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions/rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) act as oncogenic driver mutations. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors have anti-tumor activities in ALK-positive NSCLC. Although the EML4-ALK fusion is common in NSCLC, concomitance of an additional ALK fusion together with an EML4-ALK fusion is not common. Here, we present a lung adenocarcinoma with two ALK fusions, a novel RMDN2-ALK fusion accompanied by an EML4-ALK fusion, detected by a targeted next generation sequencing assay. The genomic translocation breakpoints of the RMDN2-ALK fusion were mapped to intron 2 for RMDN2 and exon 15 for ALK, and EML4-ALK breakpoints were mapped to intron 13 for EML4 and intron 19 for ALK. ALK break-apart FISH detected multiple ALK rearrangements, a gene fusion panel (NanoString) test confirmed the EML4-ALK fusion, and RNA-sequencing revealed two ALK fusions. The RMDN2 gene locates at the short arm of chromosome 2 between ALK and EML4 genes. The intact ALK kinase domain fused to RMDN2. Genome-wide copy number variants were found in multiple chromosome arms and the short arm of chromosome 2, suggestive of complex rearrangements. Further detailed analyses of breakpoints and copy number variants may shed light on mechanisms of their formation and pathogenesis in lung malignancies.

Keywords: ALK rearrangements; EML4-ALK fusion; Lung cancer; Next generation sequencing; RMDN2-ALK fusion.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma of Lung / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma of Lung / pathology*
  • Aged
  • Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
  • Female
  • Gene Rearrangement / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics*
  • Prognosis
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / genetics*


  • EML4-ALK fusion protein, human
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
  • ALK protein, human
  • Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases