Intracellular ion fluxes emerge as critical actors of immunoregulation but still remain poorly explored. In this study, we investigated the role of the redundant cation channels TMEM176A and TMEM176B (TMEM176A/B) in retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt+ cells and conventional dendritic cells (DCs) using germline and conditional double knockout mice. Although Tmem176a/b appeared surprisingly dispensable for the protective function of Th17 and group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the intestinal mucosa, we found that they were required in conventional DCs for optimal Ag processing and presentation to CD4+ T cells. Using a real-time imaging method, we show that TMEM176A/B accumulate in dynamic post-Golgi vesicles preferentially linked to the late endolysosomal system and strongly colocalize with HLA-DM. Taken together, our results suggest that TMEM176A/B ion channels play a direct role in the MHC class II compartment of DCs for the fine regulation of Ag presentation and naive CD4+ T cell priming.
Copyright © 2021 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.