Adsorption of cisplatin on oxidized graphene nanoribbons for improving the uptake in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549

Curr Drug Deliv. 2021 Jul 8. doi: 10.2174/1567201818666210708124424. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Graphene nanoribbons are nanosized strips of graphene with unique physicochemical properties like higher drug loading capacity and affinity for tumor cells.

Objective: The principal objective of this research was to develop oxidized graphene nanoribbons (O-GNRs)-a based delivery system for cisplatin against non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549 by selective endocytosis.

Method: The O-GNRs prepared using various synthetic steps like oxidative unzipping were evaluated for various parameters like morphology, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study, % adsorption efficacy, Differential scanning colometric (DSC) study, and in-vitro efficacy studies.

Results: Graphene nanoribbons with the length of 200-250 nm and width of 20-40 nm were obtained. The FTIR spectrum of drug-loaded O-GNRs exhibited a characteristic peak at 1550 cm-1 (-N-H group) of cisplatin. The DSC indicated the presence of sharp endothermic peaks at 59 ºC (PEG), 254 ºC (-C-NH3) and 308.6 ºC (-C-Pt). The % adsorption efficiency was found to be 74.56 ± 0.798% with in-vitro release in controlled manner (63.36 % ± 0.489 %) for 24 h.

Conclusion: The nanoformulation showed an average inhibition of 22.72% at a lower dose of cisplatin (> 25%) by passive targeting cell line A549 by DNA alkylation. In the near future, graphene-based systems will establish potential nanosystems in cancer treatment due to the additive effect of graphene with various therapeutic agents.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbons; PEGylation; endocytosis; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; unzipping.